Bermudagrass is a medium- to fine-textured warm-season turfgrass that spreads by rhizomes and stolons. It has excellent heat, drought, and salt tolerance but does not do well in shade. Bermudagrass is the most widely used species on athletic fields and golf course fairways / tee boxes due to its high wear tolerance and rapid recovery. It can also be a very invasive and hard to control weed in some turf settings. Bermudagrass can be confused with nimblewill. However, nimblewill has a membranous ligule, which can be distinguished from the hairy ligule of Bermudagrass. Bermudagrass is also often confused with zoysiagrass, but zoysiagrass has hairs standing upright on the leaf blade, whereas Bermudagrass does not. Zoysiagrass is also stiff to the touch and offers more resistance to your hand than Bermudagrass. Zoysiagrass leaf vernation is rolled whereas Bermudagrass leaf vernation is folded. There are many different hybrids of Bermudagrass that range from fine to coarse in leaf texture. As a weed, Bermudagrass is sometimes referred to as wiregrass.
Warm-season grasses include Bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass, bahiagrass and carpetgrass. They are often called southern grasses because they grow best in hot summer areas and lack the winter hardiness of the cool-season grasses. Depending on location, warm-season grasses grow vigorously from mid- to late spring through summer and into early fall. They usually turn brown and go dormant in winter.
The most important time to feed Bermuda lawns is from spring through summer and, in some southernmost areas, into fall. It should not be fertilized prior to active growth in spring (wait until you have mowed the lawn twice) or late into the fall (six weeks prior to the average date of the first frost). Either practice can weaken the turf and lessen hardiness.
Some of the more serious pests that feed on bermuda grass are armyworms, cutworms, sod webworms, and white grubs.
Bermudagrass mites and mealybugs can be a problem by piercing the grass and sucking out the plant juices. This can stress or thin the grass, but usually will not kill it. During the summer, when the grass is actively growing, it can easily handle small numbers of these insects.
A few serious fungal diseases can affect home bermuda grass turfs. Spring dead spot, brown patch and dollar spot are among them. Bermuda decline (root rot) is another disease that occurs in poorly drained soil.